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cocktails bitters, amaro, aperitivo, vermouth are all bitter-sweet alcoholic beverages that are commonly used as flavourings in cocktails or consumed on their own.

While they share some similarities, there are distinct differences between the four.

Cocktails bitters are concentrated flavour extracts made by infusing a high-proof alcohol with various botanical ingredients such as herbs, roots, fruits, and spices. They are typically used in small amounts, just a few dashes, to add depth, complexity, and balance to cocktails. Examples of well-known tincture bitters include Angostura and Peychaud's. These bitters are usually added as a finishing touch to enhance the overall flavour profile of a drink.

Amaro, which means "bitter" in Italian, is an Italian liqueur that is darker, more herbal, and often served as a digestif to finish a meal. Amari are known for their pronounced bitterness and complex flavour profiles. They are typically made by macerating or steeping a blend of herbs, roots, flowers, and other botanicals in alcohol, and then sweetening the resulting infusion. Amari are often enjoyed neat, chilled, or over ice. Some popular examples of amari include Campari, Averna, and Fernet-Branca.

Aperitivo liqueurs, also referred to as aperitifs, are bitter-sweet liqueurs that are consumed before a meal to stimulate the appetite. They are often enjoyed on their own or used as key ingredients in aperitivo cocktails. Aperitivo liqueurs are known for their bitter flavour profile and vibrant colours, typically ranging from red to orange. Some popular examples include Campari, Aperol, and Cynar. These liqueurs are usually served over ice and can be mixed with soda water or used in cocktails like the Negroni or Spritz.

Vermouths, as mentioned earlier, are slightly different from traditional bitters, amaro, and aperitivo liqueurs. Vermouth is a fortified wine that is aromatized with various botanicals, including bittering agents. It is often used as a component in classic cocktails like the Martini and Negroni but can also be enjoyed on its own as an aperitif. Vermouths can vary in sweetness and flavour profiles, with some being drier and more bitter, while others are sweeter and more herbal.

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